ЦВМ YouTube ЦВМ Instagram ЦВМ Вконтакте История русского флота

With the name of Ushakov and Nakhimov. The 75th anniversary of the establishment of military awards of the USSR Navy

During the great Patriotic war, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR approved military orders named after the great generals and naval commanders of our country. July 29, 1942 was established the order of Suvorov of the I, II and III degree, order of Kutuzov I and II degree and the order of Alexander Nevsky. February 8, 1943 — order of Kutuzov III degree. October 10, 1943 — the order of Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

In mid-1943 Narkom Navy N. G. Kuznetsov proposed to the Supreme commander-in-Chief I. V. Stalin to establish the orders of Ushakov and Nakhimov. Even before the official approval of the idea in The General staff of the Navy began the development of naval awards. The organization of this business was entrusted to the captain of 1 rank B. M. Khomich. Under his leadership, a group of specialists — architect M. A. Shepilevsky, captain 2ranga N. A. Volkov, an employee of the newspaper "Krasnoflotets" A. L. Diodorov developed many options for future orders and medals.

In January 1944, the Navy Commissariat of people's Commissariat made a proposal to the Government of the USSR to establish military orders in honor of Russian naval commanders Ushakov and Nakhimov. On the question of precedence of orders, a special Commission headed by the chief of the Main political Directorate of the red Army, Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b), the Deputy people's Commissar of defense of A. S. Shcherbakov has confirmed the original suggestion that the higher should be the order of Ushakov. The Commission also decided to divide the orders of Ushakov and Nakhimov into two degrees and to establish medals bearing the names of these naval commanders to reward the elders and sailors.

March 3, 1944, came two of the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the establishment of the military orders: order of Ushakov I degree, II degree and the order of Nakhimov first and second class" and "On the establishment of military medals: the medals of Ushakov and Nakhimov medals". Orders of the name of the great naval commanders were supposed to reward officers of the Navy "for outstanding services in the organization, management and maintenance of military operations and for the successes achieved as a result of these operations in the battles for the Motherland."

On may 16, 1944 the first Decree on awarding the order of Ushakov I degree to rear Admiral P. I. Boltunov and Lieutenant General of aviation V. V. Ermachenkov was issued. Only 47 was awarded the order of Ushakov I degree. The order of Ushakov II degree among the first were: in the Northern fleet on 10 April 1944 the brigade commander submarines, captain 1st rank I. A. kolyshkin; the black sea fleet on 20 April 1944, Lieutenant commander A. A. Glukhov; the red banner Baltic fleet on 26 June 1944, captain 2 rank M. A. Belush.

The first time the award knight of the order of Nakhimov I degree became the chief of the coastal defense of the black sea fleet, Lieutenant-General of coastal service P. A. Morgunov, awarded by the decree of may 16, 1944, the same day as the first knights of the order of Ushakov I degree. The first knight of the order of Nakhimov II degree was the pilot of the 46th assault regiment of the Northern fleet, Lieutenant N. I. Vasin, awarded the order of the commander of the fleet on April 5, 1944 for special courage and resourcefulness in the performance of complex combat missions.

In total, about 730 awards were made by the orders of Ushakov and Nakhimov, including 6 officers were awarded naval orders three times, 41 officers — twice.

The medal of Ushakov was awarded to persons of private, senior and non-commissioned officers of the Navy for personal courage and bravery in the battles with the enemies of the Soviet Union at sea theaters. The right to award this medal, as well as Nakhimov's medal, was granted to commanders of parts and connections. Therefore, holders of this award appeared almost simultaneously on all fleets involved in the fighting with the Nazis. In total, more than 15 thousand people were awarded the Ushakov medal.

Nakhimov medal was awarded not only to soldiers of the Soviet Navy, but also not in the ranks of the Navy, who showed courage and initiative in the fight against enemies at sea theaters. In total, more than 13 thousand people were awarded the Nakhimov medal.

Many sailors earned during the great Patriotic war two medals named after the great naval commanders.

The exhibition presents the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the establishment of the order of Ushakov and Nakhimov I and II degrees and medals of March 3, 1944, a description of the statutes of the orders, award documents, uniform and weapons of Admiral A. G. Golovko, photos of the order and the order of Ushakov and Nakhimov.

 

The exhibition will continue until 30 June 2019.